Command – Design Patterns in Swift


The Command design pattern can solve two problems. One is coupling the invoker of a request to a particular request should be avoided. That is, hard-wired requests should be avoided. The other is configure an object (that invokes a request) with a request.

Command Pattern – UML

Use Command Pattern in Swift

The Command interface declares a method for executing a command.

import XCTest

protocol Command {

    func execute()

Some commands can implement simple operations on their own.

class SimpleCommand: Command {

    private var payload: String

    init(_ payload: String) {
        self.payload = payload

    func execute() {
        print("SimpleCommand: See, I can do simple things like printing (" + payload + ")")

However, some commands can delegate more complex operations to other objects, called “receivers.”

class ComplexCommand: Command {

    private var receiver: Receiver

    /// Context data, required for launching the receiver's methods.
    private var a: String
    private var b: String

    init(_ receiver: Receiver, _ a: String, _ b: String) {
        self.receiver = receiver
        self.a = a
        self.b = b

    func execute() {
        print("ComplexCommand: Complex stuff should be done by a receiver object.\n")

Complex commands can accept one or several receiver objects along with any context data via the constructor. Commands can delegate to any method of a receiver.

The Receiver classes contain some important business logic. They know how to perform all kinds of operations, associated with carrying out a request. In fact, any class may serve as a Receiver.

class Receiver {

    func doSomething(_ a: String) {
        print("Receiver: Working on (" + a + ")\n")

    func doSomethingElse(_ b: String) {
        print("Receiver: Also working on (" + b + ")\n")

The Invoker is associated with one or several commands. It sends a request to the command.

class Invoker {

    private var onStart: Command?

    private var onFinish: Command?

    /// Initialize commands.
    func setOnStart(_ command: Command) {
        onStart = command

    func setOnFinish(_ command: Command) {
        onFinish = command

    func doSomethingImportant() {

        print("Invoker: Does anybody want something done before I begin?")


        print("Invoker: ...doing something really important...")
        print("Invoker: Does anybody want something done after I finish?")


The Invoker does not depend on concrete command or receiver classes. The Invoker passes a request to a receiver indirectly, by executing a command.

Let’s see how it all comes together. The client code can parameterize an invoker with any commands.

class CommandConceptual: XCTestCase {

    func test() {

        let invoker = Invoker()
        invoker.setOnStart(SimpleCommand("Say Hi!"))

        let receiver = Receiver()
        invoker.setOnFinish(ComplexCommand(receiver, "Send email", "Save report"))


In summary, the Command pattern is recognizable by behavioral methods in an abstract/interface type (sender) which invokes a method in an implementation of a different abstract/interface type (receiver) which has been encapsulated by the command implementation during its creation. Command classes are usually limited to specific actions. The Command pattern is pretty common in Swift code. Most often it’s used as an alternative for callbacks to parameterizing UI elements with actions. It’s also used for queueing tasks, tracking operations history, etc.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *