Composite – Design Patterns in Swift


 The Composite design pattern solves that a part-whole hierarchy should be represented as tree structure so that clients can treat part and whole objects uniformly.

Composite Pattern – UML

Use Composite Pattern in Swift

Base Component

The base Component class declares common operations for both simple and complex objects of a composition. And it may optionally declare methods for setting and accessing a parent of the component in a tree structure. It can also provide some default implementation for these methods.

In some cases, it would be beneficial to define the child-management operations right in the base Component class. This way, you won’t need to expose any concrete component classes to the client code, even during the object tree assembly. The downside is that these methods will be empty for the leaf-level components. Therefore, you can provide a method that lets the client code figure out whether a component can bear children.

The base Component may implement some default behavior or leave it to concrete classes.

import XCTest

protocol Component {

    var parent: Component? { get set }

    func add(component: Component)
    func remove(component: Component)

    func isComposite() -> Bool

    func operation() -> String

extension Component {

    func add(component: Component) {}
    func remove(component: Component) {}
    func isComposite() -> Bool {
        return false

Leaf Component

The Leaf class represents the end objects of a composition. A leaf can’t have any children. Usually, it’s the Leaf objects that do the actual work, whereas Composite objects only delegate to their sub-components.

class Leaf: Component {

    var parent: Component?

    func operation() -> String {
        return "Leaf"

Composite Class

The Composite class represents the complex components that may have children. Usually, the Composite objects delegate the actual work to their children and then “sum up” the result.

The Composite executes its primary logic in a particular way. It traverses recursively through all its children, collecting and summing their results. Since the composite’s children pass these calls to their children and so forth, the whole object tree is traversed as a result.

class Composite: Component {

    var parent: Component?

    private var children = [Component]()

    func add(component: Component) {
        var item = component
        item.parent = self

    func remove(component: Component) {
        // ...

    func isComposite() -> Bool {
        return true

    func operation() -> String {
        let result ={ $0.operation() })
        return "Branch(" + result.joined(separator: " ") + ")"

The children field contains the component subtree. A composite object can add or remove other components (both simple or complex) to or from its child list.


The client code works with all of the components via the base interface.

class Client {

    static func someClientCode(component: Component) {
        print("Result: " + component.operation())

    static func moreComplexClientCode(leftComponent: Component, rightComponent: Component) {
        if leftComponent.isComposite() {
            leftComponent.add(component: rightComponent)
        print("Result: " + leftComponent.operation())

Thanks to the fact that the child-management operations are also declared in the base Component class, the client code can work with both simple or complex components.

Finally, let’s see how it all comes together.

class CompositeConceptual: XCTestCase {

    func testCompositeConceptual() {

        /// This way the client code can support the simple leaf components...
        print("Client: I've got a simple component:")
        Client.someClientCode(component: Leaf())

        /// well as the complex composites.
        let tree = Composite()

        let branch1 = Composite()
        branch1.add(component: Leaf())
        branch1.add(component: Leaf())

        let branch2 = Composite()
        branch2.add(component: Leaf())
        branch2.add(component: Leaf())

        tree.add(component: branch1)
        tree.add(component: branch2)

        print("\nClient: Now I've got a composite tree:")
        Client.someClientCode(component: tree)

        print("\nClient: I don't need to check the components classes even when managing the tree:")
        Client.moreComplexClientCode(leftComponent: tree, rightComponent: Leaf())


If you have an object tree, and each object of a tree is a part of the same class hierarchy, this is most likely a composite. If methods of these classes delegate the work to child objects of the tree and do it via the base class/interface of the hierarchy, this is definitely a composite. The Composite pattern is pretty common in Swift code. It’s often used to represent hierarchies of user interface components or the code that works with graphs.

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